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Лечение острого лимфобластного лейкоза

Лечение острого лимфобластного лейкоза

Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemiaThe treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia  in Israel with chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation has proven to be highly effective. In a leading Israeli private clinic, Herzliya Medical Center, bone marrow transplantation is performed at the highest professional level.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant lesion of the hematopoietic system, accompanied by the appearance of a large number of hematopoietic cells in the hematopoietic tissues, which impede the growth and development of healthy blood cells, which leads to inhibition of the process of normal blood formation. The disease is most often diagnosed among children.

Symptoms of ALL

Clinical manifestations of acute lymphocytic leukemia may include:

  • Bleeding from the gums and nose;
  • Bone pain;
  • Fever;
  • Frequent nosebleeds;
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, abdomen, or groin;
  • Pallor of the skin;
  • Dyspnea;
  • Weakness, tiredness.

Many symptoms of acute lymphocytic leukemia are similar to those of the flu, but unlike the flu, there is no improvement in health status with ALL. If these symptoms develop, it is strongly recommended that you seek medical attention.

Diagnosis ALL

The following studies are prescribed to diagnose acute lymphocytic leukemia:

  • An extensive blood test will help to identify abnormalities in the composition of the blood: an increased number of blast cells and a low content of platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells;
  • Bone marrow biopsy . During a biopsy, a bone marrow sample is taken from the pelvic bone and sent to a laboratory for testing. If abnormal leukemia cells are detected, the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is confirmed. Next, the type of leukemia is determined using additional tests;
  • Computer imaging tests, such as x-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound scans, are used to determine the prevalence of the cancer process in other areas of the body.
  • Spinal puncture. In some cases, it may be necessary to study the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid to check for leukemic cells. During the procedure, a small needle is inserted into the spinal canal of the lower back and a sample is taken.

Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Israel

  • When confirming the diagnosis of ALL, it is important to start treatment immediately. The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Israel is divided into several stages: induction of remission, consolidation, maintenance therapy and preventive treatment
  • Induction therapy. During this phase of treatment, intensive therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs is prescribed. The purpose of this stage is to achieve remission, by maximizing the destruction of diseased cells in the hematopoietic tissues, and restoring normal hematopoiesis
  • Consolidation. The goal of post-remission therapy is to eliminate the remains of abnormal cells in the brain and spinal cord that were not destroyed during induction therapy. This phase  of cancer treatment in Israel  aims to consolidate the results of induction. The main objective of consolidation is to reduce the risk of relapse. Cytostatics (chemotherapy drugs) are also used during the consolidation phase.
  • During maintenance therapy, the reproduction of abnormal cells is prevented. Pharmacological preparations used at this stage are prescribed in low doses for a long period of time.
  • Preventative treatment. At this stage of treatment, chemotherapy drugs are often injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid to destroy abnormal cells in the central nervous system.

The treatment process for acute lymphoid leukemia is long, the duration of therapy can be two to three years.

Methods of treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia:

  • Chemotherapy of  acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Chemotherapy drugs designed to destroy abnormal cells are prescribed at all stages of treatment. Depending on the phase of treatment, several types of cytostatics can be used simultaneously;
  • Targeted drug therapy. Targeted therapy drugs affect certain mutations that have occurred in abnormal cells. Often, patients suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia have an abnormal Philadelphia chromosome. When this gene disorder is detected, targeted drugs are used such as imatinib, dasatinib, which are used to destroy cells containing this mutation. These drugs can be used both during and after chemotherapy;
  • Radiotherapy  ALL. Radiotherapy uses powerful x-rays to destroy leukemic cells. With the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, accompanied by the penetration of pathological cells into the central nervous system, as a rule, a course of radiation therapy is prescribed. Radiotherapy in combination with other types of therapy provides a positive therapeutic effect;
  • Stem cell transplantation . The innovative method has found application as a consolidation therapy in people at high risk of re-cancer or for the treatment of relapses of the disease. This procedure allows you to restore healthy stem cells much faster and more efficiently. Before a bone marrow transplant, patients receive increased doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
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