The treatment of multiple myeloma in Israel, as well as other types of blood cancer, is successfully carried out by specialists
Multiple myeloma (myeloid disease, plasmacytoma) is a systemic malignant lesion of plasma blood cells, the task of which is to produce antibodies that are responsible for the body’s immunity. The proliferation of malignant plasma cells occurs in the bone tissue, causing severe systemic disorders associated with both bone destruction and associated metabolic processes and a decrease in the body’s immune function. Despite the fact that scientists still have not been able to unambiguously determine the causes of the development of multiple myeloma, there is irrefutable data on the relationship of the disease with inherited genetic mutations. The disease is characteristic of patients older than 50 years. Additional risk factors for the development of the disease are obesity, exposure to ionizing radiation,
Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma
Early diagnosis of plasmacytoma is difficult due to the absence of specific symptoms. Perhaps a prolonged asymptomatic course. The characteristic signs of multiple myeloma, developing at a progressive stage of the disease, are:
- Pathological bone fractures and chronic bone pain. The cause of these symptoms is lytic bone damage caused by the proliferation of malignant cells. The most characteristic lesion of the bone tissue of the pelvis, spine, skull and ribs;
- Clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia — elevated levels of calcium in the blood associated with multiple bone decay. Hypercalcemia is characterized by progressive fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, severe thirst, arrhythmias, impaired consciousness;
- Violation of protein metabolism and the allocation of abnormal monoclonal proteins leads to progressive damage to the kidneys and can cause kidney failure;
- Clinical signs of anemia (anemia) — weakness, fatigue, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, shortness of breath, decreased exercise tolerance;
- Immune system disorder — a tendency to severe and recurrent infections, in particular to pneumonia, sinusitis, infectious lesions of the kidneys and urinary tract, skin infections.
The presence of symptoms suspicious of multiple myeloma requires immediate medical attention.
Diagnosis of myeloid disease
In the Herzliya Medical Center private clinic, patients undergo the entire necessary set of examinations aimed at accurate differential diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Among the main diagnostic criteria, it is important to note:
- Medical history data and results of examination by clinic specialists
- Laboratory studies of peripheral blood. A general analysis allows you to determine the presence of anemia and violations of the leukocyte formula, suspecting the presence of a malignant process. Electrophoresis of plasma proteins will help diagnose changes in protein composition characteristic of multiple myeloma. Measuring the level of calcium in the blood allows you to judge the intensity of bone destruction;
- A biochemical urine test determines the presence of a protein specific for multiple myeloma (Bens Jones protein);
- X-ray examination of the skeleton and diagnosis of focal lesions of bone tissue characteristic of the disease and the presence of multiple pathological fractures. Diagnostics is supplemented by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET-CT), which allow localization and severity of the process to be determined with high accuracy;
- Diagnostic bone marrow puncture to determine the proliferation of malignant cells. A histological and genetic study of the drug obtained by biopsy allows you to judge the type of disease, as well as the severity of systemic lesions. The results of diagnostic bone marrow puncture are important for determining the treatment tactics for multiple myeloma.
After collecting the necessary information, specialists at the Herzliya Medical Center private clinic determine the stage, histological type and degree of aggressiveness of multiple myeloma. Based on these data, an optimal cancer treatment program is being developed in Israel .
Modern methods of treating myeloid disease in Israel
Modern methods of treating multiple myeloma in Israel include both classical and innovative methods that have proven high efficiency and allow counting on a favorable prognosis of complete cure or persistent remission of the disease. The main treatment methods successfully used by specialists of the Herzliya Medical Center private clinic include:
- Chemotherapy for multiple myeloma is used both intravenously in a hospital setting and in the form of tablets, which can be taken on an outpatient basis. The main drugs that successfully inhibit the growth of malignant plasma cells are Melphalan (Alkeran), Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), Vincristine, Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and Liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil);
- Targeted therapy for multiple myeloma is highly effective with a relatively low percentage of side effects. The high selectivity of targeted therapy drugs opens up great prospects for the use of this treatment in patients at different stages of the disease. The drug Bortezomib (Velcade) is an inhibitor of a specific enzyme present in malignant cells and is able to inhibit the proliferation of multiple myeloma;
- Non-chemotherapeutic drugs with drugs such as Thalidomide (Thalomid) and Lenalidomide (Revlimid). These drugs have proven effective in treating multiple myeloma and are successfully used in the treatment of recurrent forms of the disease;
- Stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma can lead to a complete recovery. Before transplantation, the activity of bone marrow cells is completely suppressed. Transplanted stem cells quickly restore the normal structure of the bone marrow without the presence of malignant plasma cells;
- Radiation therapy for multiple myeloma is effective for focal lesions characterized by intensive proliferation of tumor cells, for example, foci of intense destruction in the bones. Irradiation is part of the complex treatment of the disease and helps to reduce symptoms;
- The corticosteroids Prednisone and Dexamethasone have a good therapeutic effect and help reduce the side effects caused by chemotherapy.
- Symptomatic therapy is aimed at reducing pain, the clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia and anemia.